Afghanistan Charikar, Ghazni, Herat, jalalabad, Kabul, Kandahar, Khost, Kunduz...
Albania Berat, Durrës, Elbasan, Fier, Kavajë, KorCë, Lushnjë, Shkodër...
Algeria Ain Beida, Aïn Oussera, Algiers, Annaba, Bab Ezzouar, Baraki, Barika, Batna...
American Samoa Aua, Fagatogo, Faleniu, Ili'ili, Leone, Nu'uuli, Ofu, Pago Pago...
Andorra Andorra la Vella, Canillo, Encamp, Engordan, La Massana, Ordino, Sant julià de Lòria
Angola Ambriz, Andulo, Baia Farta, Bailundo, Benguela, Caala, Cabinda, Cafunfo...
Anguilla Bethel, Betty Hill, Blowing Point, Blowing Point Village, Bungalows, Cannifist, Cauls Bottom, Chalvilles...
Antarctica Aitcho Islands, Andvord Bay, Antarctica, antartica, Boon Point, Cuverville Island, Danco Island, Deception Island...
Antigua and Barbuda All Saints, Bolans, Carlisle, Cedar Grove, Clare Hall, Codrington, Dickenson Bay, English Harbour...
Argentina Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Cordoba, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa...
Armenia Abovyan, Agarak, Akhtala, Alaverdi, Aparan, Ararat, Armavir, Artashat...
Aruba Brasil, Bubali, Ceru Colorado, Cura Cabai, Madiki, Malmok, Noord, Oranjestad (capital)...
Australia Albury, Armidale, Bathurst, Blue Mountains, Broken Hill, Campbelltown, Cessnock, Dubbo...
Austria Amstetten, Ansfelden, Bad Ischl, Bad Voslau, Baden bei Wien, Bischofshofen, Bludenz, Braunau am Inn...
Azerbaijan Agdam, Agdash, Agjabadi, Agstafa, Agsu, Astara, Babek, Baku...
Bahamas Albert Town, Alice Town, Andros Town, Arthur's Town, Clarence Town, Cockburn Town, Colonel Hill, Coopers Town...
Bahrain A'ali, Adliya, Al Malikiyah, Budaiya, Hamad Town, Isa Town, jidhafs, Manama...
Bangladesh Barisa, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi, Sylhet
Barbados Christ Church, Bridgetown, Saint Andrew, Saint George, Saint james, Saint john, Saint joseph, Saint Lucy...
Belarus Asipovichy, Babruysk, Baranovichi, Barysau, Biaroza, Brest, Dzyarzhynsk, Homel...
Belgium Aalst, Aarschot, Antwerpen, Arlon, Bastogne, Beringen, Bilzen, Blankenberge...
Belize Belize City, Belmopan, Benque Viejo del Carmen, Corozal, Dangriga, Ladyville, Orange Walk, Punta Gorda...
Benin Abomey, Abomey-Calavi, Allada, Aplahoué, Athiémé, Banikoara, Bassila, Bembèrèkè...
Bermuda Devonshire, Hamilton, Hamilton Parish, Saint George's, Southampton
Bhutan Chhukha, Damphu, Gasa Dzong, Geylegphug, Ha, jakar, Lhuntshi, Mongar...
Bolivia Bermejo, Camiri, Cobija, Cochabamba, Colcapirhua, Cotoca, El Alto, El Carmen...
Bosnia and Herzegovina Banja Luka, Berkovici, Bihac, Bijeljina, Bosanska Gradiska, Bosanska Krupa, Bosanski Brod, Bosanski Petrovac...
Botswana Bobonong, Francistown, Gaborone, Ghanzi, Gumare, Hukuntsi, jwaneng, Kang...
Brazil Acre, Alagoas, Amapa, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceara, Distrito Federal, Espirito Santo...
British Indian Ocean Territory Carcasse, DIEGO GARCIA NSF, Downtown, East Point Settlement, Minni Minni
Brunei Bandar Seri Begawan, jerudong, Kuala Belait, Seria, Tutong
Bulgaria Blagoevgrad, Burgas, Dobrich, Gabrovo, Haskovo, Kardzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech...
Burkina Faso Aribinda, Banfora, Batié, Bobo Dioulasso, Bogandé, Boromo, Boulsa, Boussé...
Burundi Bubanza, Buhongo, Bujumbura, Bukirasazi, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega...
Cambodia Battambang, Kampong Cham, Kampong Chhnang, Kampong Speu, Kampong Thom, Kampot, Koh Kong, Kratié...
Cameroon Abong Mbang, Akonolinga, Ambam, Bafang, Bafia, Bafoussam, Bafut, Bagangte...
Canada Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nova Scotia, Nunavut...
Cape Verde Assomada, Mindelo, Porto Novo, Praia, São Filipe
Cayman Islands Bodden Town, East End, George Town, North Side, West Bay
Central African Republic Alindao, Baboua, Bahamo, Bambari, Bangassou, Bangui, Baoro, Batangafo...
Chad Abeche, Ade, Adre, Am Timan, Aouzou, Ati, Bardai, Bebidjia...
Chile Aisen, Antofagasta, Araucania, Arica and Parinacota, Atacama, Biobio, Coquimbo, Los Lagos...
China Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang...
Christmas Island Drumsite, Flying Fish Cove, Settlement, South Point, The Settlement, Waterfall
Cocos (Keeling) Islands Bantam Village
Colombia Armenia, Barrancabermeja, Barranquilla, Bello, Bucaramanga, Buenaventura, Buga, Cartagena...
Comoros Adda Doueni, Bambao, Bandaressalam, Bazimini, Chezani, Dembéni, Djoiezi, Domoni...
Congo Aba, Banana, Bandundu, Beni, Bikoro, Boende, Boma, Bukavu...
Congo (DRC) Bomassa, Brazzaville, Diosso, Djambala, Ewo, Gamboma, Impfondo, Kayes...
Cook Islands Aitutaki, Atiu, Mangaia, Manihiki, Manuae, Mauke, Mitiaro, Nassau...
Costa Rica Alajuela, Cartago, Curridabat, Escazu, Golfito, jacó, Liberia, Limón...
Cote d Ivoire Abengourou, Abidjan, Aboisso, Adzope, Agboville, anyama, Biankouma, Bingerville...
Croatia Bakar, Beli Manastir, Belisce, Benkovac, Biograd na Moru, Bjelovar, Buje, Buzet...
Cuba Artemisa, Baracoa, Bayamo, Camaguey, Cardenas, Ciego de Avila, Cienfuegos, Colón...
Cyprus Achna, Agia Marina, Agia Marinouda, Agia Napa, Agia Trias, Agia Varvara, Agioi Trimithias, Agios Dometios...
Czech Republic Brno, Ceské Budejovice, Chomutov, Decin, Frydek-Mistek, Havirov, Hradec Kralové, jihlava...
Denmark Aalborgb, Albertslunda, Arhus, Ballerupa, Brondbya, Copenhagena, Esbjerg, Fredericia...
Djibouti Alaili Dadda, Ali Sabieh, Arta, As Ela, Balho, Chebelle, Daimoli, Daoudaouya...
Dominica Atkinson, Barroui, Berekua, Calibishie, Canefield, Castle Bruce, Grand Bay, Grand-Anse...
Dominican Republic Azua de Compostela, Bajos de Haina, Bani, Bayaguana, Boca Chica, Bonao, Cabral, Cambita Garabitos...
Ecuador Ambato, Arajuno, Babahoyo, Bahia de Caraquez, Baños, Cuenca, Duran, Esmeraldas...
Egypt 6th of October City, Abu Qirqas, Abutig, Akhmim, Akoris, Alamein, Alexandria, Amarna...
El Salvador Acajutla, Ahuachapan, Apopa, Chalatenango, Cojutepeque, La Unión, Mejicanos, Nejapa...
Equatorial Guinea Aconibe, Acurenam, Añisoc, Ayene, Baney, Bata, Bicurga, Bidjabidjan...
Eritrea Adi Keyh, Adi Quala, Agordat, Asmara, Assab, Barentu, Beilul, Dekemhare...
Estonia Abja-Paluoja, Antsla, Elva, Haapsalu, jogeva, johvi, Kallaste, Kardla...
Ethiopia Adama, Addis Ababa, Addis Alem, Addis Zemen, Adigrat, Adwa, Agaro, Akaki...
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Ajax Bay, Beaver Settlement, Bluff Cove Settlement, Bombilia House, Burnside House, Camp Verde, Carcass Island Settlement, Ceritos...
Faroe Islands Eioi, Famjin, Fuglafjorour, Fugloy, Funningur, Gotu Kommuna, Hov, Husar...
Fiji Ba, Dreketi, Korolevu, Labasa, Lami, Lautoka, Levuka, Lomawai...
Finland Aanekoski, Ahtari, Akaa, Alajarvi, Alavus, Anjalankoski, Ekenas, Espoo...
France Abbeville, Agde, Agen, Aix-en-Provence, Aix-les-Bains, Ajaccio, Albi, AlenCon...
French Guiana Ain, Aisne, Allier, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, Alpes-Maritimes, Ardennes, Aube, Aude...
French Polynesia Akouménaye, Alicoto, Apatou, Awala-Yalimapo, Bélizon, Bienvenue, Cacao, Camopi...
French Southern and Antarctic Lands Alfred Faure, Dumont d'Urville Station, Martin-de-Viviès, Port-aux-FranCais, Saint-Pierre
Gabon Anaa, Arue, Arutua, Austral Islands, Bora-Bora, Faa‘a, Fakarava, Fangatau...
Gambia Bakau, Banjul, Bansang, Basse Santa Su, Brikama, Brufut, Farafenni, janjanbureh (Georgetown)...
Georgia Abasha, Abastumani, Akhalkalaki, Akhaltsikhe, Akhmeta, Ambrolauri, Batumi, Bolnisi...
Germany Aach, Aachen, Aalen, Abenberg, Abensberg, Achern, Achim, Adelsheim...
Ghana Accra, Adenta East, Aflao, Agogo, Agona Swedru, Akim Oda, Anloga, Asamankese...
Gibraltar East Side, North District, Reclamation Areas, Sandpits Area, South District, Town Area, Upper Town
Greece Athens, Acharnes, Agia Paraskevi, Agia Varvara, Agioi Anargyroi, Agios Dimitrios, Agios Ioannis Rentis, Agrinio...
Greenland Nuuk, Aasiaat, Ilulissat, Maniitsoq, Nanortalik, Narsaq Pop, Paamiut, Qaqortoq...
Grenada Gouyav, Belmont, Calivigny, Grand Roy, Grenville, Hillsborough, Marquis, Paradise...
Guadeloupe Anse-Bertrand, Baie-Mahault, Baillif, Basse-Terre, Bouillante, Capesterre-Belle-Eau, Capesterre-de-Marie-Galante, Deshaies...
Guam Agana Heights, Agat, Asan-Maina, Barrigada, Chalan-Pago-Ordot, Dededo, HagAtña, Inarajan...
Guatemala Amatitlán, Antigua Guatemala, Chichicastenango, Chimaltenango, Chinautla, Chiquimula, Cobán, Escuintla...
Guernsey Alderney, Castel, Forest, Guernsey, Herm & jethou, Sark, St. Andrew, St. Martin...
Guinea Beyla, Boffa, Boké, Conakry, Coyah, Dabola, Dalaba, Dinguiraye...
Guinea-Bissau Bafatá, Bissau, Bissorã, Bolama, Buba, Bubaque, Cacheu, Canchungo...
Guyana Anna Regina, Bartica, Corriverton, Fort Wellington, Georgetown, Ituni, Lethem, Linden...
Haiti Bombardopolis, Cap-Haïtien, Carrefour, Cavaellon, Croix-des-Bouquets, Delmas, Dessalines, Fort Liberté...
Heard Island and McDonald Islands Heard Island, McDonald Island
Honduras Armenia Bonito, Chamelecón, Choloma, Choluteca, Comayagua, Dalí, El Progreso, Gracias...
Hong Kong SAR Central and Western, District, District, District, Eastern, Islands, Kowloon City, Kwai Tsing...
Hungary Békéscsaba, Budapest, Debrecen, Eger, Érd, Gy_r, Kaposvár, Kecskemét...
Iceland Akranes, Akureyri, Álftanes, Borgarnes, Dalvík, Egilsstaoir, EskifjOrour, Garoabær...
India Abohar, Achalpur, Adipur, Agartala, Agra, Ahmedabad, Ahmednagar, Aizawl...
Indonesia Ambon, Balikpapan, Banda Aceh, Bandar Lampung, Bandung, Banjar, Banjarmasin, Batam...
Iran Aali Shahr, Abadan, Abadeh, Abeyek, Abhar, Abyaneh, Ahar, Ahvaz...
Iraq Ad-Dawr, Afak, Al Diwaniyah, Al Hillah, Al-Awja, Al-Qa'im, Amarah, Ar Rutba...
Ireland Armagh, Belfast, Cork, Derry, Dublin, Galway, Limerick, Lisburn...
Isle of Man Andreas, Arbory, Ballaugh, Braddan, Bride, Castletown, Douglas, German...
Israel Acrea, Afula, Arad, Arielb, Ashdod, Ashkelond, Baqa-jatt, Bat Yam...
Italy Acerra, Acireale, Afragola, Agrigento, Alessandria, Altamura, Ancona, Andria...
Jamaica Albert Town, Alexandria, Alligator Pond, Anchovy, Anotto Bay, Balaclava, Bath, Bethel Town...
Japan Aichi, Akita, Aomori, Chiba, Ehime, Fukui, Fukuoka, Fukushima...
Jersey Grouville, Saint Brélade, Saint Clément, Saint Helier, Saint john, Saint Lawrence, Saint Martin, Saint Mary...
Jordan Ajloun, Al Dlail, Al Husn, Al Karak, Al Kutaifah, Al Matabbah, Al Muwaqqar, Amman...
Kazakhstan Aktau, Aktobe, Almaty, Arkalyk, Astana, Atyrau, Baikonur, Balqash...
Kenya Baragoi, Bungoma, Busia, Butere, Dadaab, Diani Beach, Eldoret, Embu...
Kiribati Abaokoro, Antai, Bairiki, Betio, Bikenibeu, Buariki, Butaritari, Ijaki...
Kuwait Abdullah Al-Salem, Abraq Khaitan, Abu Halifa, Ahmadi, Al-jabriya, Al-Zour, Andalus, Ardiyah...
Kyrgyzstan Balykchy, Batken, Bishkek, Cholpon-Ata, Isfana, jalal-Abad, Kant, Kara-Balta...
Laos Luang Prabang, Savannakhet, Seno, Thakhek, Thangone, Vang Vieng, Viengsay, Vientiane
Latvia Ainazi, Aizkraukle, Aizpute, Akniste, Aloja, Aluksne, Ape, Auce...
Lebanon Tyre, Aley, Baabda, Baalbeck, Batroun, Becharre, Beirut, Bint jbeil...
Lesotho Maseru, Teyateyaneng, Mafeteng, Hlotse, Mohale's Hoek, Maputsoe, Qacha's Nek, Quthing...
Liberia Arthington, Barclayville, Bensonville, Bopolu, Buchanan, Buutuo, Careysburg, Clay-Ashland...
Libya Abu Qurayn, Ajdabiya, Al 'Aziziyah, Al Abrag, Al Ajaylat, Al Bayda', Al Haniyah, Al jaghbub...
Liechtenstein Gamprin, Schellenberg, Vaduz, Ruggell, Eschen, Mauren, Schaan, Triesen...
Lithuania Vilnius, Kaunas, Klaipeda, siauliai, Panevezys, Alytus, Marijampole, Mazeikiai...
Luxembourg Diekirch, Differdange, Dudelange, Echternach, Esch-sur-Alzette, Ettelbruck, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg City...
Macao SAR Our Lady of Fatima Parish, St. Anthony Parish, St. Lazarus Parish, Cathedral Parish, St. Lawrence Parish, Our Lady of Carmel Parish, St. Francis Xavier's Parish, Cotai Landfill
Macedonia,Former Yugoslav Republic of Berovo, Bitola, Bogdanci, Debar, Delcevo, Demir Kapija, Demir Hisar, Dojran...
Madagascar Ambalavao, Ambanja, Ambatolampy, Ambatondrazaka, Ambenja, Ambilobe, Ambohimahamasina, Ambohimahasoa...
Malawi Balaka, Bangula, Blantyre, Bwanje, Champhira, Chikwawa, Chileka, Chilumba...
Malaysia George Town, Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh, Kuching, johor Bahru, Kota Kinabalu, Shah Alam, Malacca Town...
Maldives Dhidhdhoo, Kulhudhuffushi, Eydhafushi, Farukolhufunadhoo, Felidhoo, Funadhoo, Fuvammulah, Gan...
Mali Aguel'hoc, Araouane, Azawad, Bafoulabé, Bamako, Bamba, Banamba, Banani...
Malta Birgu, Bormla, Isla, Mdina, Qormi, Si__iewi, Valletta, Victoria...
Marshall Islands Ajeltake, Delap, Djarrit, Ebeye, Laura, Rairok, Uliga
Martinique Basse-Pointe, Ducos, Fort-de-France, Gros-Morne, La Trinite, Le Francois, Le Lamentin, Le Lorrain...
Mauritania Nouakchott, Nouadhibou, Rosso, Adel Bagrou, Bogué, Kiffa, Zouérat, Kaédi...
Mauritius Albion, Amaury, Amitié - Gokhoola, Arsenal, Baie du Cap, Baie du Tombeau, Baie Malgache, Bambous...
Mayotte Acoua, Bandraboua, Bandrele, Bouéni, Chiconi, Chirongui, Dembéni, Dzaoudzi...
Mexico Acapulco, Acuña, Aguascalientes, Allende, Almoloya de juárez, Altamira, Apatzingán, Apodaca...
Micronesia Dalipebinau, Dublon, Eauripik, Elato, Eot, Ettal, Fais, Fala-Beguets...
Moldova Anenii Noi, Balti, Basarabeasca, Biruinta, Briceni, Bucovat, By status, Cahul...
Monaco Fontvieille, La Colle, La Condamine, Saint Roman (La Rousse), Larvotto, Les Révoires, Monaco, Moneghetti...
Mongolia Altai, Arvaikheer, Baganuur, Baruun-Urt, Bayankhongor, Bor-OndOr, Bulgan, Choibalsan...
Montenegro Andrijevica, Bar, Bare, Becici, Beran Sel, Berane, Bijela, Bijelo Polje...
Montserrat Brades Estate, Cork Hill, Old Towne, Plymouth, Richmond Hill, Salem, St. john's, St. Peter's
Morocco Agadir, Asilah, Azrou, Azilal, Azemmour, Beni Mellal, Berkane, Berrechid...
Mozambique Angoche, Beira, Bilene, Catandica, Chibuto, Chicualacuala, Chimoio, Chinde...
Myanmar Yangon, Mandalay, Mawlamyaing, Bago, Pathein, Monywa, Meiktila, Sittwe...
Namibia Arandis, Eenhana, Gobabis, Grootfontein, Henties Bay, Karasburg, Karibib, Katima Mulilo...
Nauru Abab, Abwaw, Adibor, Adreyi, Adrurior, Adungidungur, Adwongeo, Aeibur...
Nepal Amaragadhi, Bandipur, Banepa, Besisahar, Bhadrapur, Bhaktapur, Bharatpur, Bhimeshwar...
Netherlands S-Hertogenbosch, Alkmaar, Almelo, Alphen aan den Rijn, Amersfoort, Amstelveen, Amsterdam, Apeldoorn...
Netherlands Antilles Kralendijk, Antriol, Boven Bolivia, Willemstad, The Bottom, Oranjestad, Philipsburg
New Caledonia Azareu, Bangou, Bouirou, Boulouparis, Bouraké, Coindé, Col de la pirogue, Comagna...
New Zealand North Shore, Waitakere, Auckland, Manukau, Hamilton, Tauranga, Napier, Palmerston North...
Nicaragua Acoyapa, Ahuaya, Alamikamba, Altagracia, Baká, Barra de Río Maiz, Bélen, Bilwascarma...
Niger Abalak, Agadez, Aguié, Arlit, Birni Ngaouré, Birni Nkonni, Dakoro, Diffa...
Nigeria Aba, Abak, Abakaliki, Abazu-Akabo, Abeokuta, Abuja, Achalla, Agbara-Otor...
Niue Alofi North, Alofi South, Avatele, Hakupu, Hikutavake, Lakepa, Liku, Makefu...
Norfolk Island P'y_ngyang, Anju-si, Chas_ng, Ch_nch'on, Ch'_ngjin-si, Haeju-si, Hamh_ng-si, Hoery_ng-si...
North Korea Kingston
Northern Mariana Islands Alamagan Village, Agrihan Village, Anatahan Village, Bandara Village, Marasu, Shomushon, Sarigan Village, Chugai...
Norway Akrehamn, Alesund, Alta, Andalsnes, Arendal, Askim, Bergen, Bodo...
Oman Adam, As Sib, Al Buraimi, Al Hamra, Al jazer, AL Suwaiq, Bahla, Barka...
Pakistan Quetta, Khuzdar, Turbat, Chaman, Hub, Sibi, Zhob, Gwadar...
Palau Airai, Kloulklubed, Meyungs, Melekeok
Palestinian Authority Bani Suheila, Beit Hanoun, Beit jala, Beit Lahiya, Beit Sahour, Bethlehem, al-Bireh, Deir al-Balah...
Panama Achutupo, Agua Buena, Aguadulce, Coclé, Ailigandí, Alanje, Alcalde Díaz, Almirante...
Papua New Guinea Abau, Adumo, Agaun, Aiambak, Aitape, Alekano, Alexishafen, Alotau...
Paraguay Abaí, Acahay, Aguaray, Alberdi, Alto Verá, Areguá, Asunción, Atyrá...
Peru Abancay, Alerta, Andahuaylas, Andoas, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Bagua, Cajamarca...
Philippines Caloocan, Las Piñas, Makati, Malabon, Mandaluyong, Manila, Marikina, Muntinlupa...
Pitcairn Islands Ducie Island, Henderson Island, Oeno Island, Pitcairn Island
Poland Aleksandrów Kujawski, Aleksandrów Lódzki, Alwernia, Andrychów, Annopol, Augustów, Babimost, Baborów...
Portugal Abrantes, Agualva-Cacém, Águeda, Albufeira, Alcácer do Sal, AlcobaCa, Almada, Almeirim...
Puerto Rico Adjuntas, Aguada, Aguadilla, Aguas Buenas, Aibonito, Añasco, Arecibo, Arroyo...
Qatar Abu az Zuluf, Abu Thaylah, Ad Dawhah al jadidah, Al `Adhbah, Al `Arish, Al Bida` ash Sharqiyah, Al Ghanim, Al Ghariyah...
Reunion Bras-Panon, Cilaos, Entre-Deux, L'etang-Sale, La Possession, Le Port, Le Tampon, Les Aviron...
Romania Abrud, Adjud, Agnita, Aiud, Alba Iulia, Alesd, Alexandria, Amara...
Russia Abakan, Abaza, Abdulino, Abinsk, Achinsk, Adygeysk, Agidel, Agryz...
Rwanda Butare, Byumba, Cyangugu, Gasarenda, Gikongoro, Gisenyi, Gitarama, Kibeho...
Saint Helena Edinburgh of the Seven Seas, Georgetown, Half Tree Hollow, jamestown, Levelwood, Longwood
Saint Kitts and Nevis Christ Church Nichola TownSaint Anne Sandy Point, Saint Kitts, Saint George Basseterre, Saint Kitts, Saint George Gingerland, Nevis, Saint james Windward, Nevis...
Saint Lucia Anse La Raye, Castries - Capital, Choiseul, Dennery, Desruisseaux, Gros Islet, Laborie, Mannings...
Saint Pierre and Miquelon Miquelon-Langlade, Saint-Pierre
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Arnos Vale, Ashton, Union Island, Barrouallie, Belmont, Biabou, Bridgetown, Buccament...
Samoa A'ufaga, Aasufou, Aele, Afega, Alafua, Alamagoto, Amaile, Aopo...
San Marino Acquaviva, Borgo Maggiore, Chiesanuova, City of San Marino, Domagnano, Faetano, Fiorentino, Montegiardino...
Saudi Arabia 'Uyayna, Abha, Abqaiq, Afif, Al Bahah, Al jafer, Al jawf, Al Kharj...
Senegal Bakel, Bambey, Bignona, Dagana, Dahra, Dakar, Diamniadio, Diourbel...
Serbia Ada (Serbia), Aleksandrovac, Aleksinac, Aleksinacki Rudnik, Alibunar, Apatin, AranDelovac, Arilje...
Seychelles Anse Boileau, Beau Vallon, Takamaka, Victoria
Sierra Leone Binkolo, Bo, Bonthe, Daru, Falaba, Freetown, Gbinti, Kabala...
Singapore Delta Estate, Dixil, Dover, Dragon View Park, Dunearn Estate, East View Garden, Eastern Gardens, Eden Park...
Slovakia Bratislava, Bánovce nad Bebravou, Banská Bystrica, Banská stiavnica, Bardejov, Bojnice, Brezno, Brezová pod Bradlom...
Slovenia Celje, Domzale, Izola, jesenice, Kamnik, Koper, Kranj, Ljubljana...
Solomon Islands Auki, Buala, Gizo (Ghizo), Honiara, Kirakira (Kaokaona), Lata (Santa Cruz), Munda, Noro...
Somalia Abudwak, Afgooye, Afmadow, Arabsiyo, Badhan, Baidoa, Baki, Balad...
South Africa Buffalo City, Bushbuckridge, Cape Town, Ekurhuleni, Emalahleni, Emfuleni, eThekwini, Greater Tubatse...
South Korea Andong, Ansan, Anseong, Anyang, Asan, Boryeong, Bucheon, Busan...
Spain A Coruña, Álava, Almeria, Asturias, Avila, Badajoz, Balearic Islands, Barcelona...
Sri Lanka Ambalangoda, Ampara, Anuradhapura, Badulla, Balangoda, Bandarawela, Battaramulla, Batticaloa...
Sudan Abekr, Abyei, Al Fashir, Al Managil, Al Qadarif, Al-Ubayyid, Atbara, Babanusa...
Suriname Abenaston, Acaribo, Albina, Alliance, Anapaike, Apetina, Apoera, Aurora...
Svalbard and jan Mayen Barentsburg, Bjornoya, Hopen, Hornsund, Isfjord, Longyearbyen, Ny-Alesund, Pyramiden...
Swaziland Big Bend, Hlatikulu, Lavumisa, Lobamba, Mankayane, Manzini, Mbabane, Mhlume...
Sweden AlingsAs, AmAl, Ängelholm, Arboga, Arvika, Askersund, Avesta, Boden...
Switzerland Aarau, Aarberg, Aarburg, Adliswil, Affoltern am Albis, Agno, Aigle, Allschwil...
Syria Al-Hasakah, Aleppo, Ar-Raqqah, As-Suwayda, Damascus, Daraa, Deir ez-Zor, Hama...
São Tomé and Príncipe Guadalupe, Neves, Pantufo, Porto Alegre, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Santana, Santo Amaro...
Taiwan Alian, Alishan, Anding, Bade, Baihe, Baisha, Bali, Banqiao...
Tajikistan Adrasmon, Buston, Chkalovsk, Danghara, Dushanbe, Dusti, Ghafurov, Hisor...
Tanzania Arusha, Babati, Bagamoyo, Biharamulo, Bukoba, Chake Chake, Chunya, Dar es Salaam...
Thailand Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Hat Yai, Khon Kaen, Lampang, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan...
Timor-Leste (East Timor) Aileu, Ainaro, Alas, Atabae, Atauro Island, Atsabe, Auba, Baguia...
Togo Lomé, Amlamé, Aného, Atakpamé, Badou, Bafilo, Bassar, Dapaong...
Tokelau Atafu Village, Fale, Fenua Fala, Nukunonu
Tonga Havelu, Hihifo, Neiafu, Nuku`alofa, Ohonua, Pangai, Vaini
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11/30/16

Xiameter sheds light on one of the most fequently requested questions regarding their Dow Corning® silicone sealants, and offers the solutions!

Xiameter sheds light on one of the most fequently requested questions regarding their Dow Corning® silicone sealants, and offers the solutions!

Please be aware that this counsel should still no longer be utilized in substitution for customer checks to make sure that the items are protected, positive and utterly sufficient for the intended conclusion-use because the situations and methods of use of our items are past our control.

Q: What strategies may also be used to advertise adhesion?

cleansing: the usage of the appropriate solvent and counseled two-material wipeChemical strategies: primersSurface power Alteration: Corona Discharge treatment, Plasma remedy, Flame TreatmentPhysical methods: Abrasion on some surfaces (roughing the floor to enhance surface area for adhesion)

Q: How may still we follow primer?

Dow Corning offers a specific primer that have to be utilized in a extremely skinny or monolayer so as to promote maximum adhesion. Open the container and pour a small amount onto a clear, lint-free fabric, then wipe it across surface enviornment to be primed. Let the primer dry and react on the surface for 30 minutes. If any white powder kinds, then it'll be wiped off with a clean, dry, lint-free cloth. adequately utilized primer should kind a transparent (monolayer) on the floor without any extra. bear in mind this monolayer primer reacts and forms a bond to the surface. allow the primer to dry and treatment for 60 to ninety minutes earlier than applying the sealant. at all times read the product guidelines for extra particulars. And at all times reseal the container when no longer being used to ensure endured nice.

Q: Can primer be utilized in lieu of substrate cleaning?

No the floor have to all the time be properly cleaned, regardless of primer use.

Q: The primer being distributed appears cloudy and white; is there some thing incorrect?

sure, if cloudy then it will be discarded. Opened containers will eventually react with moisture within the air and form a cloudy look. always use clean, clear primer.

Q: How do you prepare substrate surfaces in strengthen of the sealant (or primer)?

Most substrate surfaces should be cleaned using the suggested two-cloth solvent cleansing system to ensure a clean, oil-free, dry surface is obtained. For complex-to-stick-to surfaces, the adhesion will also be more suitable the use of a primer. Some surfaces may additionally require abrasion to remove imbedded grime, however be careful not to hurt the floor. consult with the substrate agency.

Q: Is sealant tooling informed?

yes, sealant tooling is always recommended so as to coat or moist the substrate surface, which is needed to advertise highest bonding. The general manner comprises adequately filling the joint first and then dry tool the sealant by way of pressing and pulling a round tipped spatula throughout the sealant surface. This step forces sealant into joint surfaces and helps gets rid of air pockets or voids on the bond line. Some will tool via wearing a rubber glove and tooling the joint with their finger. Others may additionally use tongue depressors or other similar tools.

Q: what's a fashioned-in-area gasket (FIPG)?

FIPG materials are distributed onto one floor and assembled onto the mating part while the sealant continues to be wet. After a ample treatment period, the gasket joint relies on the adhesion of the fabric to both constituents of the meeting to seal.

Q: Can Dow Corning silicone sealant/adhesives be used underwater?

We do not recommend our silicone sealants/adhesives for continuous underwater use.

Q: Will your sealants adhere to challenging to bond to plastics reminiscent of polyethylene, polypropylene, urethane, acrylic or PTFE?

normally, no, silicone sealants commonly will not adhere to those substrates; despite the fact using one or more of here adhesion development suggestions (chemical treatment, roughing the floor, corona treating the floor) may additionally aid. at all times bear in mind, that despite the fact that they may also now not have excellent adhesive power to those substrates, there can be adequate adhesion for a particular application. examine the silicone sealant to your software earlier than use.

Q: Will silicones destroy down from UV mild and ozone?

Silicones in time-honored display remarkable UV and ozone balance.

Q: Will silicone sealants have an effect on surfaces to be painted?

If possible, be sure you always pre-paint the surface just before applying a silicone sealant. portray issues can turn up if in direct contact with the silicone. Use our Dow Corning® OS-2 Silicone Cleaner and floor preparation to clean off any uncured residue; perform a check patch with the paint to try the effectiveness. Most paint does not typically adhere to silicone sealant/adhesives so warding off contact with surfaces to be painted is informed.

Q: Would you recommend Dow Corning® 732 Multi-aim Sealant or every other acetoxy remedy sealant for use with concrete?

No, Dow Corning® 732 Multi-intention Sealant’s byproduct is acetic acid (low pH) and masonry purposes are basic (excessive pH). The acid/base response kinds salts, with a purpose to stay away from adhesion between the Dow Corning® 732 Multi-goal Sealant and the concrete.

Q: Is there a sealant that may withstand higher temperatures than common silicones?

Dow Corning® 732 Multi-purpose Sealant can withstand intermittent temperatures up to four hundred°F. Dow Corning® 736 heat Resistant Sealant tolerates intermittent temperatures up to 600°F.

Q: How am i able to eradicate a cured sealant?

Cured silicone will also be removed from a surface with a pointy blade if the cured silicone fabric is obtainable. whether it is elaborate to cut through, solvents may be used if you want to soften the cured sealant and make it less difficult to cut via. Solvents that can also soften cured silicone would encompass isopropanol alcohol (IPA), toluene, xylene, naptha, or mineral spirits. Dow Corning OS Fluids can even be used to aid soften cured silicone and/or eliminate silicone residue after it has been removed automatically from a floor. Dow Corning OS Fluids will commonly be a reduce VOC option to common solvents as well.

Q: How lengthy will silicone sealants ultimate outside? Will it embrittle?

commonly, silicone sealants will stay flexible and keep efficiency homes (durometer, tensile, elongation and modulus) if the Product is utilized according to Dow Corning’s familiar necessities.

Q: Will cured silicone sealants yellow?

Most don't yellow. Some oxime sealants, which include amines, will yellow and may no longer be used in locations the place the yellowing may be considered. once in a while, different sealants may also be discolored through tough coats used on plastics. Some rubbers have plasticizers to be able to leach out and discolor adjoining, gentle-colored sealants.

Q: Can sealants be used after their use by means of date?

We do not suggest use of our items beyond their usable existence.

Q: Can your sealants be diluted for spraying or dipping?

As a everyday rule, you can dilute sealants with Dow Corning OS fluids or naptha. Dow Corning® 236 Dispersion and Dow Corning® 1890 shielding Coating are both dispersed sealants.

Q: Can silicone sealants be exposed to harsh chemical substances?

total immersion with harsh chemical compounds reminiscent of mighty acids, bases solvents, and fuels is not recommended for many silicone sealants. although, splash contact is customarily suited, even with harsh chemical compounds. once more, look at various for proper efficiency in your application. try Dow Corning® 730 Chemical Resistant Sealant for most purposes. make certain to verify it for health in your application.

About Xiameter

In 2000, Dow Corning was dealing with an expanding variety of rivals around the globe that have been moving into the common silicones enterprise. at the equal time, for a growing customer segment called “fee-seekers” who crucial little or no service connected to the items, expense had turn into the using force.

Dow Corning crucial to shelter their position as a issuer of creative silicon- based substances and options (which, for the most half, came bundled and priced together). Dow Corning knew that they necessary to find a much better way to satisfy shoppers’ needs precisely.

It become time for a online game-altering method – one that would simultaneously:

  • Meet customer needs for effective, in your price range silicone items
  • Empower Dow Corning to proceed to innovate and develop the silicones market normal
  • Dow Corning determined the choicest solution to take talents of the skills within the mature market section, devoid of detracting from the cost of the Dow Corning providing, would be to create a separate company. This brand would present a certainly defined cost proposition and set of products by means of an internet-enabled platform to give aggressive pricing.

    The product set could be a wide range of commonplace silicone items frequently notion of as “commodities” with the aid of clients. These average products can be – and nevertheless are – manufactured by using Dow Corning.

    The tone can be “no frills” – simply simple business phrases and conditions, high-quality products, a reputable give, and market-driven fees. short. candy. To the factor.

    Defining success (2002-2009)

    With the launch of the XIAMETER® brand in March 2002, Dow Corning revolutionized the manner they do enterprise. strong point silicone items, carrier and solutions continued as a part of the company under the Dow Corning® company. The XIAMETER manufacturer met the wants of “fee-seekers” who bought general silicone items by way of www.xiameter.com.

    The international pressure to find stronger efficiencies in business via an internet-enabled business mannequin worked of their favor. It helped Dow Corning maximize productiveness and decreased human error, while keeping expenses aggressive for purchasers. in place of cannibalizing the Dow Corning company as some feared, the XIAMETER® company made it more desirable. both brands worked in concord, assisting enhance Dow Corning’s financial outcomes dramatically throughout this duration.

    Between 2002 and 2009, the XIAMETER® manufacturer become an internet-enabled company with clear company rules, offering generic normal silicones at clear, market-driven fees. besides the fact that children, those business suggestions simplest allowed for huge-volume orders. There was no technical provider. Lead instances ran 7-20 days. And simplest 400 standard silicone items were purchasable through www.xiameter.com.

    expanding the model (2009-latest)

    In 2009, Dow Corning multiplied the XIAMETER® business model – for a similar intent we launched it within the first area – to satisfy customer needs in accordance with wise consumer segmentation analysis. Xiameter noticed a necessity for all shoppers – no longer simply big-volume patrons – to be in a position to buy usual silicone products at market- based mostly costs. in accordance with the success of the fashioned Xiameter model, business leaders were assured expanding the model would work – each for clients and Dow Corning. And it did!

    The XIAMETER® company mannequin, which changed into elevated in June 2009 and improved once again in 2011, now offers heaps of normal silicone products. Plus, the mannequin isn't any longer for tremendous-extent customers only. There are more volume-quantity alternate options. With the Xiameter clear cost tiers, customers can choose the pricing most appropriate for them based on the volumes they need. They should purchase assorted objects within a product family and receive more suitable coupon codes. they could lock in cost and volume commitments via an internet supply agreement. They also can select credit score phrases that work gold standard for them, which will also be assorted each time they order. Plus, shoppers who want smaller quantities, shorter lead times or more bendy ordering options can have them – by way of purchasing XIAMETER® company items through local distributors.

    With today’s XIAMETER® brand, clients can get the entire normal silicones they want within the way that works ultimate for them. something they want. anywhere and youngsters they want it. In a global of traffic jams, on-dangle tune and long grocery store lines, we think it’s a good choice.

    supply: Xiameter.

    For more information on this supply, please visit Xiameter.

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